Recommended Referencing Guide
The following information and examples of referencing are based on the APA (American Psychological Association) Style Guide, a commonly used guide for writing academic papers.
Recognising the Work of Others
Within the assignment itself (in-text referencing)
Format: Surname of author, date and page(s).
Example: Since students learn in different ways, flexibility of presentation can help them to learn and understand more easily (Healy, 1994, p.148).
And then in the reference list at the end of the assignment you need:
Format: Author, date, title (in italics), place of publication, and publisher
Example: Healy, J.M. (1994). Your child's growing mind. New York: Doubleday.
A reference list (or citation list) is a list of the books, journals, Internet sites, magazines, newspapers, etc that are directly referenced (either by quoting, paraphrasing or summarising) in the assignment.
A bibliography is a list of all the materials consulted when preparing the assignment, including those which are not directly referenced. APA Style requires a reference list at the end of the assignment, not a bibliography.
Example: Nicol, A. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Example: Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48, 1141-1147.
Example: O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.
Example: Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.
Example: New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15) The Washington Post, p. A12.
- Alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title.
- In text, use a short title for the parenthetical citation:
Example: ("New Drug," 1993).
- Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.
Example: Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
Example: Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson, M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy -- Project update. Telehealth News,2(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr4a.html
Example: GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
- If the author of a document is not identified, begin the reference with the title of the document.
Example: Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html
E-mail communications from individuals should be cited as personal communications.
The format in text (personal communications are not cited in the reference list) is as follows:
Example: L. A. Chafez (personal communication, March 28, 1997)
It is possible to send an e-mail note disguised as someone else. Authors − not journal editors or copy editors − are responsible for the accuracy of all references, which includes verifying the source of e-mail communications before citing them as personal communications in manuscripts.
Example: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author's surname. Separate the citations with semicolons.
Example: Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) ...
Sources for this page:
More examples can be found at NP Library's Citing Resources.
Next: Examples for students »